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Ask Tim

Send your weather-related questions for Meteorologist Tim Deegan to

Will the oil slick affect hurricanes?


Answer: If the slick lingers it will tend to hold deep water temps down and inhibit moisture drawn into a hurricane. This combination would weaken and or inhibit development.


Will the afternoon highs be more like 'inland areas' or the beaches?


answer: THE PLAYERS will feel the sea breeze on most days and therefore afternoon temps will be more like the beaches. 


What is the normal low for this time of the year?

Players Volunteer

We had a record hi-lo of 73 this morning. Our normal low is 58.


When is the normal first day of the year in which we make it to 90?


Answer: Although the average hi is 81, today is our averge first day of the year to hit 90.

What do you mean by upper levels?


Answer: This generally covers the atmosphere above 15,00 feet. Very often the 'upper levels' will define the weather at the surface during afternoon heat.

Why do storms often coming at us from the west split around us?


Often the warmth of the Gulf ignites storms , they then throw clouds over us , this keeps us from warming up and so as the storms head our way they weaken, then redevlop where there is still sun. Very often this is from Savannah north and central Florida south.


Is Guana lower because of our dry weather?

Answer: no it has been lowered by the park service as they work on the dam and kill away some of the cattails and let natural grass fill in.


Do you have any good environmental news?


The waterways of the U.S. and the ozone levels of the globe are in better shape due to legislation.

Will the volcano impact our weather?


If the volcano continues to erupt for the next several months

our sunsets/sunrises will have more color and the average temp may drop as much as a degree.


What is Ball Lightning?

4th grade Neptune Beach Elementary

Answer: looks like it sounds, tends to 'float' horizontally and is not understood well


VQQ is the old NZC, cecil field now jax jet port


When does athe pollen peak?


The spring polen peak for us is within the next 2 weeks


When does the ocean temp reach 70 and stay there?


Answer: Normally by April 1oth. It will take a little longer this year.


Which is sunnier the beach or inland?


Answer: The beaches tend to be sunnier , especially on warmer days.


What is typical weather for September?


Answer:  72-88 and one of our wettest months


What is the diference between a flash flood warning and a flood warning?


A FLOOD WARNING is a longer lasting event . A FlASH FLOOD WARNING is a quickly developing flood and can catch many unprepared. Remember..TURN AROUND DONT DROWN...


When has the latest 1st 80 degree day of the year been?


Answer: We just broke the record that has held since 1948,

the latest ever was april 9th, 1926.


When will the pattern bringing us the cold end?


When the 'Icelandic' Low shifts back to near Iceland instead of the Northeast U.S. This should happen over the next 5 days.


Where is the Altamaha Sound?

This sound and river seperates Glynn and MCintosh counties


Which of our months has the most extreme temperatures?


Answer: March has the greatest fluctuations. The days are longer and thus 80's can and do occur, while the jet stream can still punch south enough to  threaten us with freezes.

Is it global warming or cooling?

Pilot Bob

Answer: No doubt its tough for us to see the warming this winter. A couple reminders , other areas have had extended temps above normal and sometimes a more energetic atmosphere means a stronger storm will have stronger north winds and we know what that brings.


When on average do we see daily highs of 70?



Answer: the last weekend of February


What is lake effect snow?

MS. Toscano

This occurs when air at about 5000 ft. is at least 30 degrees colder than the temperature of the water. With the right wind flow this creates showers(snow). There is the rare event in which this process occurs near our coast.


When you say norhtwest wind, is that toward or from?



Answer: whenever we give wind direction, we are  letting you know where the wind will come from.



What is a 'Clipper'?


Answer: An area of low pressure that races out of Canda and heads southeast and east with a short period of wind and precipitation.


What is a winter storm watch?


For those in the Valdosta-Waycross-Area : enough sleet freezing rain and some snow may cause problem on bridges later Friday.


What is the most important weather tool now?

Atlantic Beach Elementary

Answer: Still the weather baloon. The information from the radio sonde  is still the best view we get of the atmosphere in the vertical.



What would be a hint in the evening of  a red sky in the morning.


Answer: One possible hint this time of year would be some cirrus clouds on the western horizon at sunset.


With all the new technology is doing the weather easier or harder than 28 years ago?



Answer: The tecnology does allow for easier showing of how we think the weather will be. But folks now expect our 7 day outook to be as good as our three day used to be.



Did the fog bring in the cool air or the cool air bring in the fog?


The cool air did bring in the fog but now the fog helps support the cool air.


Why dont you become a news anchor?

Dr. Lex

Well i joined this community 28 years ago on this date and ahve alot more to learn. Plus i am truly a weather freak, always have been, and love what you all enable me to.


What is the typical weather like in Vancouver during the time of the Winter Olympics?


Answer: lo: 33 hi: 44 but of course colder and snowy up in the mountains.


We had such a cold start but what about last year globally?


Last year was the 2nd warmest in 130 years for all of the earth and warmest ever recorded for the southern hemisphere.



When are red flag warnings issued?


It has more to do with relative humidity and wind vs. soil moisture. The criteria for red flag warnings are dryer than 35% humidity and wind levels up.


What is a maelstrom?

Bartramsprings 2nd grader

It is a whirlpool type current that forms as strong wind waves are blown agains a tidal current


I have an air to air heat pump and keeping it at 68 just doesn't cut it in this cold. Is there a better setting?


Sorry to say with bills considered there is not a better setting.

At least the record cold wave is coming to an end


Why could we see snow on radar over Duval but only enough for snowballs south of Duval?


Its one of the reasons i only went for a 30% of snow south of I-10. Indications were the snow would fall from the clouds but that the air at the surface would be very dry and thus evaporate much of it. Farther south there was more moisture

and thus less evaporation of the snow and sleet.


When lightning makes a fulgerite what is the natural glass called?

Southwoods elementary

They also came up with the answer: Silica is natural glass when lightning strikes sand


Does wind direction over the St. Johns impact moring lows?


Answer: Downwind from the river will be the area most impacted. Especially the wider sections


What is a 'Hard Freeze"

worried about pipes

Answer: several hours below 28 degrees


Where did the name 'blue moon' come from?


It was actually a mistakeby an editor in 1946

and the name stuck


Does nearby water keep my plants warmer?


Answer: A large body of water will impact the air and keep you wamer, but  'local' water will only slow the drop once the temp gets to 32, so nearby small bodies of water will help keeping you from a hard freeze but not a light freeze.


Which term do i prefer to 'global warming"


Well 'greenhouse effect is good as is 'climate change', bit i prefer 'energy imbalance' . This term i think covers more, all of the different ways our life on earth is and will be effected by the energy surplus that is building up in our atmosphere.


Will this be the first official freeze?

Since we count the airport(JIA) as official...yes

which would be the third latest 'first freeze' over the last 60 years


El Nino???? Does it create a better chance for a White Christmas on the east coast?


Yes it does tend to bring more storms right along the east coast. So not colder, but a winter with more moisture.



Is a three day period of temps above normal a sign of colder to come...even without looking at a weather map?


Answer: yes....kinda like a see-saw or rollercoaster...the bigger the rise the bigger the drop


Whats the big concern with c02 when there is so much more water vapor?


As the amount of co2 rises then the amount of water vapor will as well. Thus one is a trigger for the other.


Why do they call it the 'Right Whale'

Answer: it was the easiest and most produvtive whale to hunt.

Thus even now their numbers are low.





When is the best time of the year to run?

Bishop Synder Highschool Students

Answer: When its below 60 your body does not spend as much energy trying to stay cool. So that would be December, January and February.


How long has the saying'red sky in the morning sailors take warning ' been around?


At least 2000 years. Check out  the New Testament.(Matthew 16:2,30


Will this storm be as strong as the storm of 1993?


Although this is a storm coming out of the Gulf with some gusts over 50 mph. This is not as strong and thus  widespread

power outages are not expected. But there will be some as well as some isolated damage with the squall line.



What do you man when you say 'fair skies'?


Fair implies you can see the sun but the skies may not be blue.

This is normally due to cirrus clouds.


Can you have frost even with temps above 32 degrees?

Since the official temp is taken at 6 feet and cold air sinks, it can still be officially above 32 but freezing on surfaces and thus maybe frost.


What happens to the weather balloon once it pops?

Bryceville Student

Answer: The radiosonde has a parachute that comes out so it can float back to earth in a safe way.


Weatherwise when is it best to go to the Okefenokee?


When the bugs are gone and the colors are at their peak. Which is now  through the end of December.


What part of the area has the most t-storms during the cooler months?


Answer: The Suwannee river valley.This is due to the proximity of the warmth from the Gulf of Mexico. This tends to enhance t-storms overnight before they come ashore.



What type of weather sytem is most energized by El Nino?


Answer: Lows developing on the sub-tropical jet stream. Normally its a low coming at us from the Gulf .


How do you forecast the HI&LO?


I first look at what the temp will be a 5,000 ft. and then take it to the surface and take in consideration clear,clouds,unstable,inversion?



Why not be more positive and say 'partly sunny 'vs. 'partly cloudy'?

We actually- are 'partly cloudy' =60% sun, 'partly sunny' is only 40% sun.


Why are most fairs held in the fall?


Its harvest time!


How much later does the moon rise every night?

John G

Answer: About 50 minutes, thats why the tides vary about the same amount every day.


Which part of the U.S. coastline has the greatest risk from a November hurricane.

Answer: The west coast of Florida



When does our highs average in the 60's?


Answer: High averaging the 60's extends from mid-December through February. 


Why is the moon sometimes red?

Caring Karen

Answer: although there are astronomical reason the more frequent reason is when the light reflected off the moon is bent just 'right'. This is when there is moisture within an inversion.


What is normal for FL/GA weather?

Answer: average afternoon temps are in the 70's....However some years it has felt like the 90's and some as chilly as the 30's.


When will the leaves peak in the mountains?

Mary Ann

Answer: North Carolina mountains right now

Georgia monutains next week



Why is your Five-Day outlook different from the other's? --Glenda

Answer: We work hard at looking at what the weather will be like each day without smoothing to average weather.

How many sunny days due we average in a year? -- LM FERRY

We average 221 sunny days a year with 104 days with rain. A day with rain can even include 1 observation of rain at night.

I spent September in New England and noticed how much below normal they were. Where is global warming? --OLS

Yes, it was very cool in New England, but the western U.S. had the warmest Spetember on record. The U.S. average was above normal.

Does the northward flow of the St. Johns affect our weather? ---Jeff

The flow from the south keeps the river a bit warmer than it otherwise would be, this in turn keeps the air along the bancks warmer, especially during the winter. This is why citrus can be noticed  along the banks,except during severe winters. 

Does a stronger hurricane always mean a bigger hurricane? --Ketterlinus Elementary

Answer: No, there is not always a connection.

Andrew a category 5 was 1/5 the size of Fay which never even became a cat 1


Is there a connection with Atlantic and East Pacific tropical activity?


ANSWER: The same 'el nino' that inhibits tropical cyclone activity in the Atlantic enhances it over the East Pacific. They are already on thier 16th storm.


When do we normally have our first big drop in temps?


ANSWER: Our normal first big drop in temps is mid September, so this drop was about two weeks later than normal.


Is one degree really that big of a deal? -- NYC SPRINTER

ANSWER: Well, one degree above average for the whole Earth is a big deal, especially if it's a trend that continues. As an example: Just one degree drop in our temperatures at 15,000 feet can mean doubling thunderstorms for that day.

Why all the seaweed? -- Arnold

ANSWER: It's sargasso and it comes from the sargasso sea, the western side is the Gulf Stream. When we have an extended period of east winds and swell, the seaweed is sent our way. This is a typical time of the year for the arrival of beds of sargasso. 

What is shear? -- Jessica

ANSWER:: Shear is a change in wind direction with height

How is heat lightning different from regular lightning? -- Ray

ANSWER: They are one and the same. Heat lightning is simply lightning from a thunderstorm that is too far away to see the cloud - but not the light coming - around the 'curve' of the horizon.

Why don't storms coming off the coast of Africa turn left? -- Mike

ANSWER: The normal pattern sends the cyclones west due to a high to the north. When the high breaks down, the storms are pulled north to low pressure areas associated with the jet stream. But on a rare event they will turn left. Mitch did this in 1998 and caused 9,000 deaths over Honduras and Nicaragua.

How many more named storms? -- Kim

ANSWER: Kim says the number of orchards will define the number of named storms. She has eight. We have had 6, climatology and El Nino would say 2-4 more.

Does anything ever get trapped in the eye of a hurricane? -- Sabel Palm Elementary

ANSWER: Yes, especially birds. Tropical birds have been noted 1,000 miles north of their native Caribbean islands.

Can we lose the eye of a hurricane when they come ashore? -- Wards Elementary

ANSWER: We do not lose the eye but it does become more difficult as the eye starts to'fill' on radar imagary.

What was the weather like on the day in which St. Augustine was founded? -- Margie

ANSWER: Nice and calm, days before a hurricane came nearby!

Why were the tides so high this morning? There wasn't a nor'easter. -- Clyde

ANSWER: The full moon phases this time of the year produce some of the highest tides of the year.

Why does lightning zig-zag instead of go in a straight line? -- Marc

ANSWER: Lightning is simply maintaning a balance in the charges of the atmosphere and thus the zig and zag is it'search' for the balancing scource point.

Which is tougher to forecast, the track or the intensity?

ANSWER: The intensity, whether weaker or stronger, is more difficult to forecast than the future track. Much of this has to do with the three dimensional convective nature of t ropical cyclones.

Why do the northeast winds sometimes bring in heavier rains than afternoon t-storms.?

ANSWER: Northeast winds blowing over the warmest ocean temps of the year.(83degrees) pick up lots of moisture, line up in the same place(train) and thus 3"/hour rainfall rates are possible. This is one of the reasons September is one of our wettest months.


Does the Gulf Stream steer hurricanes away from us?


The currents does not. The warmer water during the early and late part of the season might have some impact when atmospheric steering currents are weak. However during the core of the season there is not much of a difference in the sea surface temps between the Gulf Stream and nearshore temps.



Can you forecast future motion of hurricanes by looking at a still picture?


Answer: Look for the flat side of the hurricane, very often this indicates motion will be off to the right by about 45 degrees.


Why dont the hurricane hunters fly into hurricanes earlier and more frquently.


Answer: We would love to have the data, but the money is just not there. Normally they wont fly into a hurricane until it gets to a longitude of 50 degrees. Thats still about 600 miles east of the Lesser Antilles.


How high were the sustained winds with Camille?

Camille which came ashore on august 17th,2009 at Bay St. Louis,Ms. with estimated winds of 200 mph and possible gusts over 230 mph. They were estimated due to the fact that all measuring instruments failed.


What would have to happen for Bill to come our way?

Two upper level troughs would have to change their predicted positions by Thursday. The first low is small and thus harder to predict. The second low is large and thus we have more confidence it will be in place to steer Bill northward.


Has the pollen count been rising?


Nation wide over the last 100 years the pollen count has nearly doubled in some areas. This is primarily due to warmer air and more humid conditions.


Tropical Depression #2? When did 1 happen?


#1 formed off the outerbanks on May 28th. This was far to the north for an early tropical depression



Has their been above normal severe t-storms this summer?


Yes the number of severe storms has been above normal this summer. Normally as the rainfall increases during the summer the 'severity' decreases. That has not been the case this year. As the air at 15000 feet has been cooler than normal and the surface winds have been more southwesterly vs. easterly. The pattern does seem to getting back to more of a normal mid to laate summer regime.


What is the difference between isolated and scattered?


Answer: sctd=30-40% coverage of precipitation

while isolated is 20% or less.

            Next to the temp what is the biggest factor in figuring the heat index?

Answer: The moisture in the air. This is measured by determining the dew point.


Answer: The peak is about August 5th, however the best times will be the next few dawns before the Moon shows itself.


Why do the  times of high and low tide shift every day.?


Answer: The tide is due to the moon and since the moon 'rises' about 50 minutes later every day the tide shifts as well.


The surf was fun today, why was tim running?

Hangten Harry

Answer: i aways run BEFORE I surf not INSTEAD


When will the nearshore ocean temps warmup?


Answer: Northeast breezes will bring in warmer ocean temps over the next 36 hours as this will cutoff the upwelling we have been having.



Is Florida the lightning capital of the world?


ANSWER: no, just for the U.S. Areas of Africa and Asia have more lightning.


Remind me of the water restrictrions?


Answer: odd address-wed/sat


non-residential tues./friday

Does an El Nino year always mean below normal cyclone activity?

Answer: no, we are learning more of a type of el Nino in which the central pacific warms more than the eatern. This can cause an above noraml year. 2004 is an extreme example


Did it start out this hot last summer?


Answer: no last summer up to this point only 1 day to 95. This year we have already had 10 95+ days.


 Does any other country have as many tornadoes as the U.S.?Kyle

Answer: We have the most tornadoes although Bangladesh has more deaths from tornadoes.

Has the ozone been above normal lately?


Answer: June has shown us in the moderate range more than normal. On average our air is in the 'good range' 300 days per year. This is better tahn most urban areas.


Why are the tides so far above normal?


Answer: This has been noticed all over the southeast. There is even some street flooding in Charleston. This is due to whats called the'spring tide'(even though its summer). This is when the sun and moon are aligned. But this particualr event has been high.

Why the advisory? Its June,its hot, whats the big deal?


Answer: Our normal hi is 89 and heat index 94. Over the weekend the hi will be near 99 and heat index near 110. The health dept. tellls this takes us to very stressful levels.



Whats up with these late night and morning t-storms?


Answer: They are called MCS's Mesoscale convective systems.

Thunderstorms that organize into one large complex. It then can thrive on energy above 15,000 feet and thus last for up to 24 hours instead of the noraml 90 minute life cycle of an individual t-storm.



Why did the ocean have a Caribbean coloring to it last week?


Answer: If the winds are light with a slight current out of the south as a warm eddy is going by we can get that 'look'.


How much does the dew point need to rise for t-storms to form?

Capt. Lee

Answer: all else being equal. During the summer from 67-72 at 3pm will do it.



When will the  sun start rising later?


Answer: today 6:25 and in a month 6:36. So its only a slow change to later.


When is the air quality normally its worse?

a mom

Answer: during the last portion of the monday-friday morning rush.



Why is it so hazy?


Answer: the same high that is capping the clouds is trapping the particulates and thus creating the haze.



What is record heat for for late spring(mid-june)?

Answer: 100-102...normal hi 88-90.



Why when we have a hot west wind does the coean cool?


This is called 'upwelling'. The west winds blow the surface water out and the deeper cooler water than fills in the void.


Do I have to worry about the storm surge? I live in Sherwood Forest.


Answer: some areas of Sherwood Forest would flood from a storm surge  in a strong cat3 hurricane.


 Has the typical summer pattern begun?


Answer: Not really this is more like a spring pattern with a well developed upper low that is adding extra energy to these storms over the last couple of days.

Will the mars really look as big as the moon in august?


Answer: no this is a hoax that seems to return every year about this time


Will my old battery operated TV get your signal after you go digital?

Jack B

Answer: sorry to my engineers say no



What should I look for in the forecast for a hint to a beautiful sunset?


Answer: Either early afternoon t-storms or late storms well inland.



When is the wettest month for the Jacksonvile National Cemetary?


Answer: August and September are both about as wet, but it will be hard to beat our May total of over 14".


How can a flood watch and a warning be in effect at the same time?


Normally a flood watch is issued for a large area, while the warning is then focused within the watch where actual flooding is happening.


When do you all begin your hurricane prep talks?


Answer: we already have(since March) and will be for months to come. Although the season officially begins on june 1, the core does not start until about august 1. 

What is the difference between a 'significant storm' and a 'severe storm'?


Answer: Severe means winds of 60+ and or hail of3/4+. Significant means a strong t-storm but not technically severe.


How do you measure the water temp?

scout pack 428

Answer: we use the average of the surf temp taken at the St. Augustine pier and @ Fernandina




Does the hot May we have had so far mean a really hot summer?


Answer: If anything there are some indications it may mean a not so hot summer. 

What will the wind be on the 17th over the weekend?


Answer: looks to be out of the west early and then out of the south later in the afternoons(that means downwind)


How do you figure out the percentages?

Answer: Current observations, computer models,experience and humility.



Back in San Antonio I used to hear the term 'dry line'.,

what is it?

Hola Noticias Reader

Answer: The 'Dry Line' is a boundary between moist and dry air. This can be a trigger for tormentas electricas(thunderstorms)


Why is knowing atmospheric so important?

Pack 473

Answer: The lower the pressure the greater the lift, the greater the lift the higher the chance of rain.



Why should we trust you meteorologists on global warming when you sometimes make errors of 24 hours fcsts.?


Answer: They are two different sciences. Meteorolgy continues to improve(really), where as its the science of Climatology that

has shown humans are inducing a change in the global climate.



Which is worse an earthquake,tornado or hurricane?

Susie E. Tolbert ES.

Answer: Since we normally have days to prepare for a hurricane and at least some time for a tornado, the earthquake without

any warning is worst.





Why have the east winds been persistent , and was it like this last April? Ed

Answer: A blocked upper level low has kept the jet stream and thus changable weather well to our west and north. This has kept a strong surface high to our north and thus persistent easterly winds. Yes last April was similar.


Why do the tides change?


Answer: The tides are caused by the pul of the moon and the postion of the moon changes just a bit each day. As and average

the tide will change about 50 minutes each day.



When the UV warning says you can 'burn' in 15 minutes is that 15 in a row or accumulated over a day?


Answer: that is 15 minutes in a row


When the ocean rises does this effect Julington Creek.

Westminster Woods

All creeks that are connected to the St Johns will rise as the ocean rises.


there sure have been alot of record lows on the east coast so far this year, how does the whole country stack up?


Overall record highs have been outnumbering record lows 2-1 around the country for 2009.


Why dont you be positive and give us our chances of sun instead of rain?


I hear you Dennis but because sunny is 'normal'

we like to prepere folks for the 'unexpected'



What is the normal  ocean temp in mid-May?


The normal ocean temp for us in Mid-May is 75-78.

Where did the word 'thunder' come from?



The latin word 'tonare' to thunder


Why the strong winds today when the tornado watch was to our south.?


The storms in the tornado watch area collapsed, the resultant downburst blowing against what would have been a southwest flow created a burst of winds out of the south with gusts to over 60 mph!


Will Ginnie Springs be open this weekend?


As the Suwannee continues to rise the forecast is that Ginnie Springs will close Monday and possibly earlier.


Why has it been soooooooo windy?

2nd graders Kernan Trail

Wind is caused by a horizontal change in pressure and or vertical mixing. Over the last 2 days we have been between a strong high to the west and a low to the northeast. Also during the afternoon the sun has warmed the surface well above athe temps at 5000 feet. This mixed higher winds at 5000 feet down to the surface.



 Does the flood watch mean we should be concerned about the St. Johns?



No, the only time we have to worry about the St. Johns and flooding is when we have a tropical cyclone producing a storm surge of at least   4 feet in combination with heavy rains.

Why do we call it a nor'easter when its not really a storm?


Its a local term when winds blow in a strong way out of the northeast.


When is the Vernal Equinox? I want to blance an egg.


The Vernal Equinox does not make it easier to balance an egg.


Why does Easter vary ?


Easter occurs on the first sunday after the first full moon after the vernal equinox .  The date fo the full moon can vary by 28 days .


How do we know the weather?

Taylor, St. Johns Country Day

Our 3 main tools are the radar , the weather balloon and the window. This helps us forecast but not necessarily know.


The equinox is defined by when the sun will be directly over the equator at noon.

Why are our days already longer than nights and yet it is not spring yet?


At what temperature does the warmth add significant stress to a runner?


Physiologist says 60 is the threshold temp in which your body has to work just to keep you thermostat balanced.


Where can I find the uv index on your web site?


answer: click on marine, its on the bottomof the page



Is it safe to plant mytomatoes?

Joe(Garden City)


For those of you from garden city north and west I would wait until the end of the month.



What is the weather typically like here in early August?


Typical early August weather is a low of 72 a high of 92,with a good chance of a t-storm between 1 and 4 in the afternoon.

Hurricane season is normally cranking up.



When was the last time we had this many freezes?


we have had 28 at the airport so for

we ahd 30 in 2000-01.



Why does the morning temp on your screen differ greatly from the official jax temp?

The temp on the screen is at our station that is within 100 yards of the river. The river has a big impact on the temp. Even though the aiport is less then 10 miles away the temps can differ by more than 1 degrees.



 How many times does a raindrop cycle up and down before it comes down as hail?


As a rough average about 4 times but the number varies greatly and is dependant on the strength and duration of the updrafts.

How do you figure out the heat index?


There is a very long complex formula

a more simplified version involves just the dew point and temp.

The higher the dew point the higher the heat index.

Each degree above 60 with the dew point adds about that much to how the actual temps feels.


When was the last time we had snow on the ground in March.


That was the morning of march 2,1986.


Why do storms sometimes form well in advance of a cold front.?


When t-storms organize along a line(squall line) they can create their own weather and jump well ahead of a front. The downburst and gravity waves are the main factors.



 Lion or Lamb?

Where does this saying for march come from?


March tends to be one of our country's most dramatic months of weather, farmers say that if it comes in like a 'lion'(stormy)then it will go out like a lamb(nice), the lion and lamb part comes from what goes on astronomically.

Whens does Arlington normally have its last freeze?


Typically the last freeze in Arlington is the first week in March.


Why the spelling 'trof' vs. trough?


When using synoptic meteorolgy the spelling'trof' can be used.



  Why do these strong cold fronts keep coming?


The upper level east coast trof continues to drive the cold fronts well to our south.


   When do the temps drop the most overnight?



Under dry calm conditions the biggest drop are the first 2 hours after sunset. Under moist conditions the drop is steadier through the night.



I saw there was a 20 degree difference in the morning low.

50 at the beach but only 30 for some inland locations.

How can this be?

Piano Man

This can happen when the wind flow is just light enough

for an inversion to form inland and thus alllows temps to drop

but just enough wind for the winds to keep going at the beach

and the warmth of the ocean can doits thing.


 Why did it rain more in Daytona than Jax on Sunday?


1. a low pressure system coming in from the Gulf came in farther south than forecast and

2. Donna as an angel woirking on our weather for the Breast Cancer Marathon

At what temperature does the heat stress a marathoner?


60 degrees in the threshold, above this level the body has to work just to keep from getting to hot.



Is there a pattern to the moonrise?


The moon rises about 50 minutes later each day. It rises about the time the sunsets when the moon is full.


What is the biggest difference between a tornado and a hurricane?

George Washington Carver Student


A tornado needs colder air nearby and hurricane would be weakened by it.


What is so bright in the western evening sky?


Venus is by far the brightest object right now


How old is the national weather service?


U.S. weather service started feb. 9th 1870 with 22 offices

Jax had the first office in Florida which opened september 13th,1871


Where should we put our thermometer?



The standard location is 6 feet high and 20 feet from any building

also it neaeds to be shaded and ventilated.



How do we find website lows?




go to our five day/click and then fill in the blank with your zip code

How do we figure the windchill? -- Bart

ANSWER: There is an official table and you can find this on our website.

When is the low you show on the 5 day outlook? -- Linda

ANSWER: The low we show is for the morning of that day

Does colder-than-average weather this time of the year mean an early spring?

ANSWER: A long period of weather one way does tend to indicate a flop the other way .

Why do we call it "over running"? -- Jeff

ANSWER: "Over running" occurs when warm air rises and "over runs" cool air. This event can produce widespread rain.

How often do we have sundogs? -- Mr. Breeze

ANSWER: About 2 to 3 times a year. Caused by sun shining through ice crystals.

Why are there so many more changes in winter vs. summer? -- Kalin

ANSWER: The jet stream brings changes and, during the winter,  the jet stream is often overhead. During the summer the jet stream is well north of us.

What is killing the red bay tree? The Freezes? -- Johnny

It is not the freezes, its a beetle. There is real concern that this beetle may wipe out the red bay tree throughout the southeast U.S.


 Will the low on Wednesday morning be a record?


No , as the record for wedneday morning is not only a record for the date but for all time in Jax. That low was 7 in 1985!



When is a wind-chill advisory issued? -- Scott

ANSWER: Locally a wind chill advisory is issued when its go ing to'feel' colder then 25 for at least several hours.

What is a hard-freeze warning? --Craig

ANSWER: A hard-freeze is a forecast for temps below 28 for longer than 28 hours.

What is the difference between a freeze watch and a freeze warning? --Rachael

ANSWER: A watch means the freeze is not expected for 24-36 hours, a warning means the freeze is imminent.

What did you mean by '10 degrees' when looking at the planets? -- Skygazer

ANSWER: Normally the position given for a planet or a star for a particular night is given in 10 degreee increments. The fist is a good measuring stick. If you hold your arm out and hold your fist up, this marks about 10 degree of sky. So if Jupiter is 20 degrees above the southwest horizon at 6:30 p.m. then this is two fist lenghts above the horizon at 6:30 p.m.

What do you mean by 80 percent on the five-day outlook? --Gerry

ANSWER: When I put 80 percent on the outlook, I am saying there will be rain that day and it should impact about 80 percent of the area.

Why is there very often a 10 degree difference in the morning lows between Cecil Field and Orange Park? -- Rick

ANSWER: The river is the major moderating influence on the temps at orange park. The official temps taken for Orange Park is actually observed at NAS JAX which has an observation site on the base surrounded on three sides by the river.

When was our last snow? -- Henri

ANSWER: Although snow has been observed many times since 1989, it is the last time we had measured snow. 

When was our earliest last freeze? -- Betty

Jan. 20th

Why do tornadoes spin counterclockwise? -- Jim

ANSWER: Tornadoes are cylones (low pressure systems) all such systems that are as significant as a tornadoes are affected by the "coriolis effect." Equatorward wind will be turned right and poleward wind will be turned left. Also the convergence (lift) with cyclones builds up the counter clockwise circulation. The opposite occurs over the southern hemisphere.

Why is your forecast so much warmer than others for the weekend? -- tks

ANSWER: Most long-term models seem to show us warming to over 80 this weekend, however this would be near, if not record, heat. Computer generated forecasts for the long range tend to steer clear of forecasting records, at least in the  long term.

I have noticed Jax has been really cold, will it stay this way thru mid-January? -- Mr. Simple

ANSWER: We should average above normal for the next two weeks as the jet stream has gone thru a major shift. Beyond that is still a bit too much for local forecasts.

What is a "lake wind advisory?" -- Bettie

ANSWER: A lake wind advisory is issued when winds are expected to gust to over 25 mph on area lakes. It is similar to a small craft advisory issued for boaters on the river and over the ocean.

Why do squall lines tend to weaken as they head our way? --Charlie

ANSWER: Typically, the squall line is being driven by the jetstream and heat at the surface. Normally the jetstream lifts to the north while the portion of the storm that received its heat from the Gulf of Mexico drops to the south of us.

Why were there clouds without rain today? -- student form Chimney Lakes Elementary

ANSWER: Air rises and then flows horizontally. This normally occurs due to an inversion and creates stratified clouds.

When will the sun start setting later? -- Sarah

ANSWER: Although the shortest day of the year is the first day of winter the sun starts setting later as of today.

How active was our hurricane season? -- John

ANSWER: As predicted it was a very acive season. The 4th most active recorded. Cuba was hit with a record 3 major hurricanes and for the first time recorded 5 major hurricanes over the Atlantic basin  for 5 months in a row.

When are the two dryest months? I need to do some roof work? -- Woodie

ANSWER: November and December followed by January. Although the jetstream with all of its energy is more often over the area the tropical mositure is normally not there to tap into for the really heavy stuff.

As a runner it seems like sometimes 20 mph winds are simply a challenge and sometimes tortuous, why is this?




Answer: winds caused by the pressure gradient tend to be steadier than winds caused by cold air convection. On days in which the winds are gusty and not steady the higher winds are being brought down to the surface, but tend to not be sustained.



When will the Caribbean cool down enough so hurricanes wont form?


Some portions of the Caribbean do not cool down below 80 degrees and so are still warm enough to support tropical cyclones. However normally by december the upper level winds are not conducive for development.



Why will there be more frost on Thursday morning vs. Wednesday morning?


Answer: On Thursday morning more moisture at the lower layers and calm conditions will  be more conducive for frost development.


It normally takes me 2 days to get ready for the first freeze, is thi one for real allthe way to the coast?



Answer: sorry to say it is, the record breaker setting up for Wednesday morning is due to a blocking high over Greenland sending the jet stream farther south than normal and strong northwest winds taking the cold air all the way to the coast.



Why was the sky so yellow this morning?



Answer: We had a low level of clouds and cirrus, this magnified

the yellow of the sunrise between the two layers.



 Where did the word 'anemometer' come from?

student at amelia island montessori

Answer: it comes from the Greek 'anemos': winds

and 'metron': to measure



Why has Cuba had so many hurricanes this year?


Answer: 1. Conditions were in place for an active year.

               2.  A persistent ridge of high pressure kept many of the tropical cyclones from recurving and thus kept the nortwest Caribbean under the cone of concern.



I just moved to jax beach, when is it best to go longboarding?


Answer: normally one to 2 days after northeast winds drop, at least this time of the year.



what is the big deal about shear?



Shear is a major player. Shear enhances t-storms along a cold front and causes weakening of t-storms within a hurricane.



Why is it foggier during the cooler months?



During the longer nights temps at the surface can cool. This allows for an inversion to develop. If there is enough moisture this allows a cloud to form at the surface(fog).



Why is it taking so long to clear?


Answer: The clouds have lingered for three days! Primarily due to what we call the east coast wedge. Most indications are for beautiful weather, however cool air right at the surface draining down the eastern seaboard and trapped west of the Gulfstream leaves us with a thin layer of clouds that is just thick enough to keep us gray.




Why is it almost always windier over the water than the land at night?



Answer: The greatest potential for wind occurs with warmth on the surface vs. cooler air above. Since large bodies of water do not cool at night and land surfaces do the greatest temp difference at night is over the water. We call this the nocturnal surge. 



Does this early cold outbreak give us a sign for the window?


Answer: The upper air pattern that set up the coldest october temps we have ever had was hemispheric and unlikely to last through the winter. The eventual pattern flip may mean above normal temps for at least one of our winter months.

Why is it so cold?



Answer: well we could talk all day on this one, but the key reason is what we call a 'blocking high' over Greenland. This forces the jet stream southward over a period of time. Some past snows here have happened after prolonged blocking highs.


Where is the westernmost portion of the Atlantic ocean in the northern hemisphere?


Amelia and Cumberland Island, this is one of the geographic

reasons our landfalling hurricane frequencyis lower than many. 



The river level has been high for months now, has this become the new norm?



ANSWER: The torrential rains of Fay in combination with several major onshore events has simply kept more water than normal trapped in the watershed. This will drop considerably over the next month.



What happens when wind blows from a high toward two different low pressure systems?

Student, Holy Family Catholic School

Answer: low level winds blowing away from a scouce(high pressure) causes the air to settle, this causes clearing.



Where does the ST. JOHNS actually start


Answer: st. johns marsh which is just soutwest of Melbourne and Palm Bay



 What is the formula for the heat index?



Answer: there is not a formula, just a chart to check

this can be found on our website, humidity levels over about 50% start to add 'how it feels' to the actual temp, and remember this is if you are in the shade.



Is the sunrise on the west side much later than at the beach?

Diane and Husband

The sunsets about 1 minute later per 10 miles


Can Nana and Omar converge?

Capt. Buzz


Yes, and in this case the remnants of Nana may be aborbed into Omar in a few days



 whats with all the seaweed and foam on the beach?



The stronger the winds off the ocean  the more foam and sea weed heads our way off the ocean. If the winds from the northeast and east last long enough they bring in stuff from the Sargasso Sea.



Does a tornado need to be seen for a warning to be issued?



Answer: No, as many tornado warnings , especially in our area

are indicated by radar only.

How does lightning form?



Lightning forms from differing electrical charges both in the cloud and on the surface. Ice development in the cloud acclerates this process.


 Which way do the tides progress on the St. Johns?

Answer: From Mayport then up river , that is southward.

The high tide is 2 hours later downtown compared to Mayport and about 7 hours later at Palatka.



What is the relationship between dew point and relative humidity?


Answer: The smaller the range between the dew point and the temperature the higher the relative humidity.


 What is more critical for tropical development ,upper level winds or water temps.




ANSWER: Upper level winds are more citical,

that is once sea surface temps make it up to near 80 degrees.



Where do the biggest tornadoes form on the First Coast?


students of San Mateo


answer: The largest tornadoes tend to occur closer to the Gulf of Mexico's heat source. So that would be for areas west of Jax. Although tornadoes can form anywhere on the First Coast, the synoptic scenario that produces the larger tornadoes tends to come at us from the west and southwest. Thus those closer to a warmer surface have a greater likelihood to be in a slightly more unstable airmass.




when do afternoon highs normally drop below 80?




Answer: by mid-October the normal high drops below 80

as the jet stream drops farther south and brings the transition of drier, cooler weather to the First Coast.



Why were there waterspouts today?


We had 57 degree air at 5000 feet blowing over 83 sea surface temps. This causes tremendous lift and spin-ups. But because the air over land is drier especially above 10,000 feet we did not see severe weather over land.



Does September have more t-storms than June?


Answer: September does have more rain but less in the way of t-storms.


What if an Ike type hurricane hit here, would our storm surge be worse?


Answer: no, it would be about 2/3 rds of what it was in Texas. That is because the Gulf is a closed basin and has a slower drop off to deep water.


you said it would be 94 at the game and yet i was told it was only 87 what gives?


Answer: Evidently the NFL counts the kickoff temp as the game temps. However the high of 93 was not reached until the 4th quarter. 1 pm is rarely when the high is, so i am not sure why the kickoff counts as the game temp.


Why do the winds blow counterclockwise with a low.?

Answer: It is due to the coriolis force, which in turn is due to the rotaion of the earth, then combine heavier air flowing from the poles and the winds must blow counterclockwise into a low over the northern hemishpere.


If a new cyclone passes over the path of where a hurricane already has been is there less energy?

Answer: yes, we call that the tropical wake. The cooler tropical wake may last as long as two weeks.


Are those colored poles some type of hurricane indicator?

Answer: Yes each color represents where the storm surge from the 5 different category's  would reach in the area of the poles location.



I live in a mobile home. Do i go to another building or stay in mine?

For larger longer lasting tornadoes in which you have time to get to a building that is tied to its foundation its a good idea.But most of the time in our area you will not have time, so cover youself and family members with anything that will protect you  from flying debris.


Why do our hurricanes form off the African coast?



Answer: most tropical cyclones form off the inter tropical convergent zone. Africa just happens to be where these sotrms that head toward us emerge off of land .


What is a hurricane named after 2 combine into one?


Answer: This is a rare event , but when it does happenthe smaller cyclone is pulled into the larger and is absorbedand the name used is by the larger cyclone.


Where can I drive to for warmer ocean temps and nicer  looking water this weekend?

Answer: The thermocline extends all the way down to the cape.However dropping west winds and even a northeast breeze on Saturday should bring us some warmer nicer water at the beach.


The surf does not look healthy right now, is it?


Answer: yes the surf is monitored every week, it is murky and cooler than normal due to the prolonged southwest and south winds.


Why is the official temp taken in the shade and not the sun?


Answer: There are too many variables with sun angle and c louds for a standard copmarison. Just know that it can feel 15 degrees hotter in the sun than what the official temp may show.



Why was Edouard called a tropical cyclone? It formed north of the tropics.

Answer: Yes the 'tropics'are considered south of 23 northbut the 2 main ingredients we look at at are. Is the convection f orming because of the heat of the sea surface and is the air aloft flowing anticyclonicly.


Is it dangerous to use a cell phone during a t-storm.?


Answer: Not significantly, much worse to use the cell while driving.



Here in Fernandina from which direction would the strongest winds blow with a hurricane?


Answer: In general : for an Atlantic hurricane the strongest winds would be from the northeast and from a Gulf storm the strongest would be from the south and southwest.



Why are our ocean temps warmer than those in the Pacific on the west coast at the same latitude?


Answer: This is the case on all continents in the northern hemisphere. The southeast coasts are warmer than the southwest coasts. This occurs as net motion of ocean is toward the southeast coast and away from the southwest coasts. This causes upwelling and thus cooling.


Why are your temps at the station sometimes as much as 6 degrees cooler than other sites around noon.?

Answer: There may be a couple reasons. One is that our temp is live where as there is a time lag in the official reporting sites.So right at noon you may be seeing the 11am temp from other sites. Also our site is the only downtown urban site.



When will the perseid meteor showers peak?


Answer: The night of August 12th.




Why are some hurricanes wetter than others?


Answer: all things being equal the slower the forward motion of a tropical cyclone the greater the rainfall totals.


I saw some clouds that looked like gumdropswhat are they called?


Answer: These are called mammatus. They indicate severe weather on the other side of the storm. This means if you see them over you its actually good news for you.



Why did the tropical storms over the weekend head away from us?


Awnswer: The big hot upper level high that formed over ussteered Cristobal and Dolly away from us. Sending Cristobal to the northeast and keeping Dolly well to our south.


Can a tropical low only 75 miles east of us develop?


Answer:  Yes, however, typically this occurs as the low heads off to the north or northeast.


Why is the sky sometimes hazy even where their is not smoke nearby?

Mrs. Brown

Answer: an inversion and or high humidity will tend to scatter sunlight more and this cause haze.



where is the warm pretty water?


Answer: its back! Pretty colors, good visibility and warming back up. The swell and more frequent onshore winds have helpedbrake up the thermocline that brought us the murky chilly waters.



Why do these clouds look like they are exploding?


Answer: Towering cumulus clouds are actually explosions of condensation. The explosion can produce a mature t-storm in 45 minutes.



What is a 'long period swell'?


Answer: the period is the time between waves, and everything else being equal, the longer the period the better the wave to surf. The farther a swell travels the longer the period.


Why dont tornadoes goon forever?

Alex 8

Answer: tornadoes recquire very specific ingredients from the surface to over 30,000 ft. a change at any of those levels will dissipate a tornado.



What is the distance between logitudnal lines at 30 degrees north latitude.?


Answer: There is 60 miles per each degree change in longitude.



Is it too hot for tornadoes to form over a wildfire?


Answer: The heat can actually cause vortices producing winds of over 100 mph.



Why does the tropical symbol have an eye and the hurricane symbol not? 


Answer: These symbols have been around for a long timeand i have yet to find a good reason. I dont know but will keep asking.  



  Why are the low tides so low right now?


Answer: The New moon and persistent  land breezes that have been strong with storms.



When lightning hits the ocean does it cause a splash, calming or what?


Answer: The only effect on the ocean is when the lightning hits a school of fish....this may create a 'stir' as the charge goes from fish to fish.



 Why don't we have the seabreeze more often?


Answer: Well the seabreeze forms on the beach nearly every day. But for inland areas the frequency of the seabreeze increases July - September.



I want to buy my hurricane supplies, when is tax free week?


Answer:  There will not be a tax free week this year in Florida.



Do we want ozone on the surface or up high?


Answer: ozone down low is bad for us. We want it up high as a protectant from some harmful effects of the sun.


What is the difference of Isolated vs. Scattered?


Answer: Isolated means 20% or less coverage

Scattered is 20-40% coverage


I have heard that the global temps did not rise over the last 10 years? Is this true?


Answer: no Charles this is not true per  NOAA and the WMOmany of the last 10 years have been the warmest of the last 100 years


What is 2nd building?


Answer: Second building,backbuilding rebuilding,this is all mostly due to the gust front causing its own weather.Under the right condition this can cause another t-storm to form.


When does the tropical season normally pick up?


The season picks up about the last week in July and peaks in September.


What would cause the St. Johns to flood like the floods in Iowa?


Answer: The river is impacted more by the ocean then rainfall.So it would not be from rain. It would take a category 5 hurricane to hit us directly.


Where do we go if we see a  tornado coming?


Answer: There are alot of variables, but bottom line,get away from windows or at least get as low as possible.



How high is an 'uppper level low'?



Answer: Think of this as cooler air above 10,000 ft. Mainly between 15,000 - 30,000 ft.



Are the above normal sharks near the beach due to the warm water?


ANSWER:I am told by captain Jeff it may be due to the by-catch from shrimpers attracting the small shark


Will my old battery operated tv work after the digital changeover?

answer: no...we will all have to buy new ones


Will my weather radio you talk about that i buy here work in Montana?

Answer: yes, they will work wherever the national weather service broadcasts

Which is the largest natural killer each year in the local area?


Ripcurrents that cause drownings kill more then lightning,heat,hurricanes and tornadoes.

Does pressure over the Caribbean indicate what might happenfor the rest of the hurricane season?


Answer: yes if the surface pressure is lower than normal , this i an indicator of an active season.


Does the particular concern with thunderstorms shift over the summer?


Answer: yes, from winds and hail in early summer to lightning and rainfall totals later in the summer


When in a hail storm but worried about a tornado, do we stay in the car or get in the ditch?


Answer: staying in  the stationary car is probably the best place unless you are sure a tornado is headed your way


What causes more deaths in the U.S. The storm surge or inland flooding due to rainfall. ?


Answer: Since most folks are evacuated out of the storm surge area and not where inland flooding occurs, the flooding from rainfall kills more.

What is considered a 'small craft'?


Answer: There is not an official definition from the National Weather Service. But is generally considered 25 feet or smaller

*** Captain Vic does note that the Coast Gaurd defines small as anything uner 66 feet


Who has the most lightning?


Answer: In the density per state category the rankings are Florida,Arizona and Oklahoma. Around the world Singapore has the most for large cities, with the Congo the global lightning capital.


What caused the waterspouts near Saint Augustine yesterday?


Answer: Air temp at 5000 feet dropped to 46 degrees. With this being over 30 degrees warmer than the sea surface temp the air was very unstable. A situation ripe for funnels and possibly waterspouts. 

What would happen if global winds dropped?


Answer: If this extnded up to 30,000 feet , then one would expect more hurricanes.

I am new to the area. Is there a number to call for the forecast?Keri

Answer: The FCN weather center number is 356-8812


Are earthquakes and lower pressure connected?


Answer: not as  far as we know


Were any hurricane names retired from the 2007 season?


 Answer: Yes Dean,Felix,Noel....combined the caused the deaths of over 320 over the Caribbean and  Bahamas. Dean and Felix were both category 5's at landfall. The first time that has happened since we have been keeping records.(1851)

 Why were the winds so hot Saturday?


  Answer: West winds for 48 hours brought in air from the desert southwest.Combining with sun this sent our hi to a record tying 93.

If cyclones, typhoons and hurricanes are the same thingwhy do we use different names?--  Robert

Answer:  The name is used that most reflect the local language of the area.

What is our average temp for the year?-- Ernest

Answer: avg. hi is 78.8,avg. lo is 57.6 so the avg. is 68

Who had the most rain on the 5/11? I sure did not!  Grandma Henderson

Answer: Charleton and Glynn counties. Some areas had over 1 inch.

Weather-Tel (904)356-8812

Call for your instant First Coast Weather forecast.

A look back at winter of 1989 in Jacksonville

Monday evening sunset, by Carollee Adams

Sunsets across the First Coast

Photo sent in by Edward Wright

Beautiful skies across the First Coast

Blue skies in St. Augustine Oct. 2. Photo submitted by Debra Briggs.

Weather, sunrises and blue skies

Lightning in Green Cove Springs (Photo sent in by Kevin Hirsch)

Rainbows, sunsets and more

Photo sent in by Charyl Murray

Friday's penumbral lunar eclipse

Flooding in the Downtown Jacksonville area

3rd Street is closed from Seagate Avenue south to as far as the eye can see, all underwater. (Photo sent in by Eric Harris)

Flooding in Jacksonville Beach

Storm rolling in Oceanway - Kimberly

Summer storm photos from around the First Coast

Storm damage near Monument and Derringer roads (Photo sent in by Joe McGarr)

Thursday storm damage on the First Coast

Photo sent in by Tom Johannes

Supermoon on the First Coast

Dark skies on Thursday near downtown Jacksonville (Paul Bulluck/First Coast News)

Severe weather on the First Coast

Photo by Melody Agnew

First Coast storm photos

Photos of Tropical Storm Andrea from around the First Coast

SHAWNEE, OK - MAY 20: Candice Lopez (L) and Stephanie Davis help clean debris from Thelma Coxs mobile home after it was destroyed by a tornado May 20, 2013 near Shawnee, Oklahoma. A series of tornados moved across central Oklahoma May 19, killing two people and injuring at least 21. (Photo by Brett Deering/Getty Images)

Images from the disasters that have dominated 2013

People walk through a damaged area near the Moore Warren Theater after a powerful tornado ripped through the area on May 20, 2013 in Moore, Oklahoma. The tornado, reported to be at least EF4 strength and two miles wide, touched down in the Oklahoma City area on Monday killing at least 51 people. (Photo by Brett Deering/Getty Images)

Photos of the Oklahoma tornado damage

Severe weather damages parts of Lake City. This photo is courtesy of Sade Malloy.

Severe weather slams First Coast

Leslie Ballou: This was in Bryceville

Hail photos from around the First Coast

Portsmouth, NH, this is the start of storm Nemo at 8 this morning. Photo sent in by Carrie.

PHOTOS: 'Historic' blizzard hits New England

Final Operation Sandy Relief shipment delivered Tuesday

FSA photographer Arthur Rothstein captured this photograph of Art Coble and his sons, south of Boise City, Okla., in April 1936. It became one of the iconic photographs of the Dust Bowl and one of the most reproduced photos of the 20th century.  Courtesy of Library of Congress

'The Dust Bowl'

Hurricane Sandy washed sand from the beach into the streets and toward the opposite side of the island. The aerial photographs taken in May 2009 and on Nov. 5 look northwest across Rockaway Peninsula in Neponsit, N.Y. The yellow arrow in each image points to the same feature.  United States Geological Survey

Images before and after Hurricane Sandy

Snow accumulates in the Rockaway Beach neighborhood of the borough of Queens, New York City.  Craig Ruttle, AP

Nor'easter strikes shore towns

People try to keep warm by a fire during near-freezing temperatures in the Rockaway, N.Y., neighborhood of the Queens borough of New York City.  Allison Joyce, Getty Images

Cleanup still underway from Sandy

Final day of Operation Sandy Relief finishes strong

15,000 pounds worth of donations collected for Operation Sandy Relief, more needed

Margaret Knichel and daughter Rebecca O'Neill of Union Beach, N.J., look for any items belonging to Knichel's son, Shawn Knichel, while standing on what was the kitchen floor of his home, destroyed by Sandy.  Tanya Breen/ Asbury Park Press

Northeast still recovering from Sandy

Lisa Kravchenko stands amid flood debris in her princess Halloween costume Oct. 31 in the Staten Island borough of New York.  John Minchillo, AP

Sandy cleanup underway in Northeast

People walk past homes and businesses destroyed during Hurricane Sandy in the Rockaway section of the Queens borough of New York City.  Spencer Platt, Getty Images

Sandy's aftermath

The 168-foot water tanker John B. Caddell is aground near Front Street in the Stapleton neighborhood on Oct. 30 on Staten Island, N.Y.  Sean Sweeney, AP

Sandy leaves path of destruction

Brooklyn Nets forward Andray Blatche took this photo and asked his followers, "Outside my house now should I leave?"  @drayblatche

Hurricane Sandy affects athletes

The New York skyline, as seen from the Williamsburg neighborhood in Brooklyn, remains dim late Monday.  Frank Franklin II, AP

Hurricane Sandy strikes, awaking to the damage

A van plows through floodwaters on Rt. 36 W in Long Branch as Hurricane Sandy bears down on the Jersey Shore, Monday, October 29, 2012. / Mary Frank

The damage from Sandy in Central Jersey

Chuck Snyder/Special to The News Journal
The Lighthouse at Ruddertowne in Dewey Beach has water all around it.

Sandy storm damage in Delaware

Photo sent in by Wayne<br>Doctors Lake at sunset on Saturday.

Sandy passes by the First Coast on Saturday

Photo by Leslie Costello<br>St. Augustine Beach on Friday.

Sandy's effect on the First Coast

Waves on Jacksonville Beach as Sandy approaches

A man walks through wrecked buildings.  AFP/Getty Images

Despite slowing down, Hurricane Sandy still a threat to East coast

Laura Rath, on vacation from the Netherlands, walks on the beach with her family as high winds from Hurricane Sandy hit Miami Beach.  Joe Raedle, Getty Images

Hurricane Sandy leaves 21 dead after hitting Caribbean

Santiago Porteiro, right, takes advantage of the winds from the outerbands of Hurricane Sandy to kite surf in Miami. Sandy is expected to hit eastern Cuba on Wednesday night and the Bahamas Thursday and Friday.  By Joe Raedle, Getty Images

Hurricane Sandy strikes

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